Chapter 8: Belief In Al-Qadar
Al-Qadar is Allah’s predestination of measurements and sustenance of
everything and everyone, according to His Knowledge and Wisdom.
Aspects Of Belief In Al-Qadar
1. Knowledge - The belief that Allah’s Knowledge encompasses everything,
every matter, major or minor, and time frames of everything that happens in this
universe. Allah’s Knowledge encompasses all of His Actions and actions taken by
2. Writing - The belief that Allah recorded everything in a Book that He
kept with Him, called “A1-Lawh’ Al-Mah’foodh” (The Preserved Book). He said,
what translated means, “Know you not that Allah knows all that is in heaven and
on earth? Verily, it is (all) in the Book (Al-Lawh’ Al-Mah’footh). Verily, that
is easy for Allah.” [22:70].
Abdullah-ibn-Amr-ibn-al-Aas (radiyallaahu anhuma) said that he heard the
Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) say, what translated means,
“Allah recorded the measurement of all matters pertaining to Creation fifty
thousand years before He created the heavens and earth.” [Saheeh Muslim]
3. The belief that nothing, whether related to Allah’s Actions or actions
taken by His slaves, can happen without His Permission. He said, what
translated means, “And your Lord Creates whatsoever He wills and chooses.” [28:
68], “ And Allah does what He will.” [14: 27] and, “He it is Who shapes you in
the wombs as He pleases.” [3: 6]. As for actions taken by His creation, Allah
said, “Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and
they would have fought you.” [4:90] and, “And if Allah had willed, they would
not have done so. So leave them alone with their fabrications.” [6:137].
4. The belief that Allah created all creation, all what they possess of
attributes and all their actions, “Allah is the Creator of all things, and
He is the Guardian over all things.” [39:62] and, “He has created everything,
and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements.” [25: 2]. Also,
Abraham said to his people, as was mentioned in the Qur’aan, “While Allah has
created you and what you make.” [37:96].
Believing in the Al-Qadar, as described above, does not mean that people have no
power over the actions they chose to take. Islamic Shari’ah and Reality confirm
that the person has a will of his own:
As for the Shari’ah, Allah said about one’s own will, what translated means,
“So, whosoever wills, let him take a Return to his Lord (by obeying His
Commandments).” [78:39] and, “So go to your tilt (have sexual relations with
your wives) when and how you will (not in the anus).” [2:223]. As for one’s own
power over his actions, “So keep your duty to Allah as much as you can; listen
and obey.” [64:16] and, “Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets
reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil)
which he has earned.” [2:286].
As for the Reality of things, every human knows that he has a power and a will
of his own. He uses his power and will to indulge in or avoid actions of his
choice. Mankind distinguish between what they do by their own power and between
what they have no power over, like shivering due to illness or extreme cool.
However, the power and will of mankind is under the control of Allah’s Will and
Power, “To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight. And you will not,
unless (it be) that Allah wills, the Lord of the worlds.” [8 1:28-29]. The
universe is Allah’s property and nothing happens in His Kingdom without His
Knowledge and Permission.
Belief in Al-Qadar, as explained above, does not provide an excuse for
mankind to sin or abandon what they are obligated to do. This excuse can be
rejected using the following arguments:
1. Allah said, what translated means, “Those who took partners (in worship) with
Allah will say: “If Allah had Willed, we would not have taken partners (in
worship) with Him, nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden
anything (against His Will). “Likewise bellied those who were before them, till
they tasted of Our Wrath. Say: “Have you any knowledge (proof) that you can
produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing but guess and you do nothing but
lie” [6:148]. The disbelievers did not have a valid excuse when they said that
what they did was according to A1-Qadar. If this excuse was valid, then why will
Allah punish them for their sins?
2. Allah said, what translated means, “Messengers as bearers of good news as
well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after
the Messengers And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.” [4:165]. Sending down
the Messengers took place according to A1-Qadar, also. This is why the
disbelievers cannot use Al-Qadar as an excuse for not believing, because Al-Qadar
provided them with the means to escape Allah’s punishment by following His
3. Ali-ibn-Abi Talib (radiyallaahu anhu) said that the Prophet (sallallaahu
alaihi wa-sallam) said, what translated means, “One’s final destination, in Hell
or Paradise, is already determined for each one of you.” A man said, “Should we
depend (on this fact), O Messenger of Allah (meaning to abandon working deeds)?”
He said, “No. Perform deeds, because everyone will be helped (to go on the path
that he chooses and reach his destiny).” Then he read the Ayah. “As for him who
gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him...” [92:5].” 
4. Allah conveyed His Commandments to His slaves and did not require them to do
what is beyond their capacity. “So keep your duty to Allah (and fear Him) as
much as you can.” [64:16], and “Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope.”
[2:286]. If the slave is forced to do whatever deeds he performs, then Allah
would have required from him what is beyond his capacity, and this is a false
belief. For this reason, Allah forgives sins that take place because of
ignorance or forgetfulness.
5. Al-Qadar is a matter of Allah’s Knowledge. No one can uncover his own Qadar
but after it happens. One’s intention to perform a deed precedes the action
itself. He does not know what Al-Qadar holds for him. Therefore, Al-Qadar is not
a valid excuse for sinning and abandoning the Commandments.
6. One always seeks what is convenient for him. No one of sane mind would
abandon what brings material benefit to him, saying that Al-Qadar forced him to
take this course of action. Therefore, why would one use Al-Qadar as an excuse
for abandoning what brings benefit to him in matters of religion and not do the
same for matters of life?
If a man has to choose between two countries to move to, one of them is chaotic,
full of incidents of murder, looting, rape, insecurity and hunger. Would he
choose to go to this country or would he go to another country, which is safe
for him and secure, with abundance in material joys, where one’s honor,
possessions and human rights are preserved? There is no doubt that this man
would choose the second country, where he will be safe and secure. No one of
sane mind would choose to go to the first country, claiming that this is his
Qadar. Therefore, why would one choose what ends him up in Hell, rather than
Paradise, in the Last Life, claiming that this is his Qadar?
When one is sick and is given a medicine to take, he will take the medicine even
though he does not like its taste. When one is told to go on a diet, he would
not eat the food that he likes, in order to satisfy this diet and to stay fit.
No one of sane mind would refuse to take medicines or go on medical diets,
claiming that this is his Qadar. Therefore, why would one abandon implementing
Allah’s and His Messenger’s Commandments, thus bringing Allah’s Wrath on him,
claiming that this is his Qadar?
7. If one of those, who abandon the Commandments and indulge in sinning, comes
under attack on his honor or possessions, would he accept the excuse of the
attacker, if he says that he attacked him because it was his Qadar to attack
him, and therefore he is not to be blamed? Indeed No! Therefore, why does this
person refuse Al-Qadar as an excuse for whoever attacked him, while he depends
on Al-Qadar as an excuse for abandoning Allah’s rights on him?
It was reported that Omar ibn Al-Khattab (radiyallaahu anhu) was brought a man
who was caught stealing. Omar ordered that this man’s hand be cut off. The man
said, “Wait, O leader of the believers. I only stole because this was in the
Qadar of Allah.” Omar said, “And we are cutting your hand because it is in the
Qadar of Allah.”
Benefits Of Belief In Al-Qadar
1. Depending on Allah alone when one indulges in any action. Taking the
necessary precautions is not the cause of one’s success in the intended actions.
All matters are under the full control of the Qadar of Allah.
2. When one succeeds in performing an action, he must not be proud of himself.
All good deeds are successfully performed because of Allah’s bounty, because He
ordained that this matter to be successful. To be proud will make one forget to
thank Allah for permitting him to successfully perform this deed.
3. Believing in Al-Qadar leads one to feel satisfied, safe and secure. All
incidents that happen to a person are a result of Allah’s Qadar. One should not
feel miserable for losing or not gaining what he likes. All this happens
according to the Qadar of Allah. Allah is the King and Lord of the heavens and
earth and His Qadar will happen exactly as He Will, “No calamity befalls on the
earth or in yourselves but is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al-Lawh’ Al-Mah’footh),
before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allah. In order that
you may not be sad over matters that you fail to get, nor rejoice because of
that which has been given to you. And Allah likes not prideful boasters.”
[57:22-23]. The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, what translated
means, “Pleasing is the attitude of the believer. All of his matters are
righteous. This is only for the believer. If a joy is brought to him, he thanks
(Allah for it). This is better for him. If a calamity befalls him, he is
patient. This is also good for him.” [Saheeh Muslim]
Two groups fell into misguidance with regard to Al-Qadar:
1. Al-Jabriyyah - This group claimed that the person is forced to do whatever he
does and that he has no power or will of his own.
2. Al-Qadariyyah - They claimed that the person has a will and power independent
of Allah’s Will and Power.
The Shari’ah and Real Life are used to refute the first group, Al-Jabriyyah.
As for the Shari’ah, Allah confirmed that humans have a will and power of their
own, ‘Among you are some that desire this world and some that desire the
Hereafter. [3:152], “And say: “The Truth is from your Lord.” Then whosoever
wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve. Verily, We have
prepared for the unjust, a Fire whose walls will be surrounding them.” [18:29]
and. “Whosoever does righteous, good deeds, it is for (the benefit of) his
own-self and whosoever does evil, it is against his own-self, and your Lord is
not at all unjust to (His) slaves.” [41:46].
As for Real Life, everyone knows the difference between his actions, like
eating, drinking, selling and buying, and between what is beyond his power, like
shivering and accidentally falling off a roof, for example. The first type of
actions are his. He chooses them on his own will using his own power. The second
type of actions are beyond his control.
The Shari’ah and The Mind are also used to refute the second group, Al-Qadariyyah.
As for the Shari’ah, Allah created everything and nothing happens without His
permission. He said that all actions taken by His slave happen by His Will,
“Allah had willed, succeeding generations would not have fought against each
other, after clear Verses of Allah had come to them, but they differed, some of
them believed and others disbelieved, If Allah had willed, they would not have
fought against one another, but Allah does what He likes.” [2:253] and, “And if
We had willed, surely! We would have given every person his guidance, but the
Word from Me took effect (about evildoers), that I will fill Hell with Jinn and
mankind together.” [32:13].
As for The Mind, the universe is Allah’s Kingdom and mankind are a part of this
Kingdom. Therefore, all mankind are owned by Allah. The slave cannot do anything
in this Kingdom unless its Lord, Allah, gives him permission.
 Saheeh aL-Bukhari & Saheeh Muslim (the wordings are by Al-Bukhari)].
Muslim’s narration of this Hadith reads, “All will be helped to satisfy what
they were created for.” The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) ordered the
companions to perform righteous, good deeds and not to depend on Al-Qadar.
There is no worthy of worship exept ALLAH and Mohammed is his messenger