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 Things That Benefit the Dead Part 2

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PostSubject: Things That Benefit the Dead Part 2   Things That Benefit the Dead Part 2 Icon_minitimeTue Oct 02, 2007 5:26 am

Things That Benefit the Dead Part 2

Claims for Ijmaa'

It should be noted that there are claims for Ijmaa' (consensus) that a dead
person benefits from the good deeds, including Qur'aanic recitation, done on his
behalf by other people. Whereas these claims have been demonstrated to be
invalid in the above discussion, they further fall under the following two

1. It has been demonstrated by staunch scholars, such as Ibn Hazm (in Usul
ul-Ahkaam), ash-Shawkwaani (in Irshaad ul-Fuhul), and 'Abd ul-Wahhab Khallaaf
(in Usul ul-Fiqh), that it is not possible to justify Ijmaa' for other than the
most obvious matters in Islaam. Imaam Ahmed has indicated this in his famous
refutation against those who claim Ijmaa'.

2. I have investigated many of the cases for which there have been claims of
ijmaa' and found that there is an obvious difference of opinion concerning them.
I (Sheikh al-Albaanee) even found (in some cases) that the opinion of the
majority of scholars is contrary to the claimed ijmaa'!" (Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz,

A Dangerous Belief

The danger of holding a wrong belief in regard to this issue has been clarified
and emphasized by al-Albaanee: "We do not doubt this wrong belief's evil effects
upon one who adopts it. He would rely upon others for acquiring rewards and high
ranks (in the hereafter), because he knows that the Muslims dedicate hundreds of
good deeds everyday to all of the living and the dead Muslims, and he is one of
them; that would then relieve him from having to work hard when others are
striving on his behalf!... A more dangerous saying is that it is permissible to
perform Hajj on behalf of others, even if there is no valid excuse preventing
them from performing it by themselves. This causes many of the wealthy people to
drop hajj or other obligations, giving themselves the excuse, "They will perform
hajj on my behalf after my death!.. There are many other similar opinions that
clearly have evil effects on the (Muslim) societies. It is imperative for the
scholars who wish to reform (the societies) to reject such opinions, because
they conflict with the texts, as well as the spirit of the Shari'ah.. As for the
person who rejects the opinions described above, it is inconceivable that he
would ever rely on other people in doing deeds and acquiring rewards. He
realizes that only his own deeds can save him, and he is rewarded in accordance
with what he himself earns. It is then incumbent that he strives t the utmost to
leave behind him good traces which will result in good rewards for him even in
the loneliness of his grave - instead of those imaginary good deeds." (Ahkaam
ul-Janaa'iz, 222-223).


Fasting the Vowed Days

Aa'ishah rahimahullaah reported that Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa
sallam said: "Whoever dies while he has a fasting to fulfill (as a vow), his
wali' (kin/guardian) should fast for him." (al-Bukhaaree, Muslim and others).

Ibn Abbas rahimahullaah reported that a woman was travelling in the sea, and she
vowed that if Allaah saved her she would fast for one month. Allaah saved her,
but she died before fulfilling her vow. Her daughter came to the Prophet
sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and mentioned this to him. He asked "Had she owed
money as debt, wouldn't you have paid it on her behalf?" She replied, "Yes". He
said: "Allaah's debt is more worthy of being fulfilled. So fulfill (the vow) for
your mother." (al-Bukhaaree, Muslim and others).

Sa'd bin 'Ubaadah reported that he told Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi
wa sallam, "My mother has died and she had an unfulfilled vow". He instructed
him: "Fulfill it for her." (al-Bukhaaree, Muslim and others).

These hadiths clearly indicate that it is recommended for a deceased's wali to
fulfill his vows of fasting. Fasting the Missed Days of Ramadhaan Some scholars
recommended, in addition to this, fasting the days of Ramadhaan that the
deceased had missed. However, the correct position in this regard is expressed
by Imaam Ahmad rahimahullaah, "One may not fast for a dead person except in the
case of a vow." (al-Masaa'il, 96 by Abu Dawud).

This position is confirmed by the understanding of two of the sahabah: 'Aaishah
rahimahullaah and Ibn 'Abbas rahimahullaah. 'Amrah reported that her mother died
without making up her missed days of Ramadhaan. She asked 'Aaishah rahimahullaah,
"Should I make that up on her behalf?". She replied: "No! Rather give sadaqah to
the needy in the amount of a half saa' (of grains or food) for every missed
day." (at-Tahawi, Ibn Hazm, verified to be sahih by al-Albaanee, Ahkaam
ul-Janaa'iz, 215). Sa'id ibn Jubayr rahimahullaah reported that Ibn 'Abbas
rahimahullaah said: "If a man gets sick in Ramadhan and then dies without
fasting, food should be given on his behalf - without a need to make up for the
fasting. But if he had made a vow (to fast), his wali' should fast for him."
(Abu Dawud, Ibn Hazm, verified sahih by al-Albaanee, Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz, 215).

Commenting on this, al-Albaanee says: "This understanding is adopted by the
Mother of the Believers, as well as Ibn 'Abbas, the great scholar of the Ummah,
and is further held by the Imam of Sunnah, Ahmad ibn Hanbal. It is the most
moderate and appropriate opinion in this regard; and it fulfills all of the
relevant hadiths, without rejected any of them, especially the first, which the
Mother of the Believers rahimahullaah did not find applicable to the fasting of
Ramadhan. She is the reporter of the hadith, and it is established that a
narrator of a hadith is more knowledgeable about the meaning of what he reports,
especially when his understanding agrees with the rules and foundations of the
Shari'aah, as is the case here." (Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz, 215-216).

And Ibn ul-Qayyim rahimahullaah comments on Aaishah's above hadith by saying:
"One group (of scholars) generaln and enable other people to follow it clean and
pure, as it was revealed izes this, and says that both the vowed and missed
obligatory fasting should be made up for the deceased. Another group rejects
this and says that no fasting may be made up for him. A third group is more
specific in saying that only the vowed fasting, but not the obligatory fasting,
should be for his brother, the appointed angel says, "Amin; and the same be
given to you." (Muslim and others).


As has been previously demonstrated (p.66) Standing guard in the way of Allah
subhanahu wa ta'ala benefits a person after his death. Fudaalah ibn 'Ubayd and 'Uqbah
ibn 'Aamir rahimahullaah reported that Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa
sallam said: "The deeds of a dead person are sealed (at the time of death)
except the one who stands guard i the way of Allaah; his good deeds continue to
increase until the Day of Resurrection, and he is protected from the trial of
the grave." (Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, and others, verified sahih by al-Albaanee
in Sahih ul-Jami' no. 4562).


Calling to a forgotten Sunnah or fighting an established bid'ah are amongs the
most important charitable deeds that a person can do during his lifetime. They
help revive Allaah's deen to Muhammad sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam. Jareer bin
'Abdullah rahimahullaah reported that they (the companions) were with Allaah's
Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam in the middle of the day when a group of
people arrived (from outside al-Madinah) to see him. They were barefoot,
(almost) naked, wearing only woolen lined cloth pieces or cloaks, armed with
swords, wearing no izaars or anything else beside that. Most or all of them were
from (the tribe of) Mudar. The face of Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa
sallam changed (reflecting sadness) when he noticed their extreme poverty. He
went in (to his house), then he came out. He commanded Bilaal to give adhaan,
prayed dhuhr, then mounted a small minbar. He gave a khutbah in which he praised
and thanked Allaah, and then said: "After this, (I say that) Allaah has revealed
in His book: "O people! Revere your lord who has created you from one soul, and
created from it its mate, and from these two spread forth multitudes of men and
women; and fear Allaah through whom you demand [your mutual rights], and [revere
the ties of] the wombs. Indeed Allaah is ever watchful over you." (4:1)." And He
sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam says: "O you who believe! Revere Allaah, and let
every person look to what he has sent forth for the morrow; and revere Allaah.
Allaah is well Aware of what you do! And be not like those who forget (disobey)
Allaah, and He caused them to forget themselves. Those are the disobedient. "Not
equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the dwellers of Jannah. It is the
dwellers of Jannah that will be successful." (59:18-20). Spend (in Allaah's way)
before you are prevented from spending. Let a man spend of his dinars, dirhams,
clothes, measure of wheat, barley or dates." Until he sallallaahu 'alayhi wa
sallam said, "Do not belittle any amount of sadaqah (charity). Safeguard
yourselves from the Fire, even with half a date." Observing the people's slow
response, the Prophet's face showed signs of anger. But then, one man from the
Ansar came with a parcel full (of money) of silver and gold, which he could
hardly hold in his palm. He handed it to Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi
wa sallam, while he was still on the minbar, and said, "O Allaah's Messenger!
Take this in Allaah's way." He sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam took it. Abu Bakr
rahimahullaah then stood and gave something. Then 'Umar rahimahullaah gave
something. Then the rest of the Muhajiroon and Ansaar gave. Thus people followed
each other in giving charity: This would give a dinar, this a dirham, this such
and this such - until there were two piles of food and clothes; and the face of
Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam lighted up with a
reddish-golden colour. So he said: "He who initiates in Islaam a good way gets
his reward for it, as well as rewards similar to those who follow him into it,
without reducing any of their rewards. And he who initiates in Islaam an evil
way gets his burden for it, as well as burdens similar to those who follow him
into it, without reducing any of their burdens." He sallallaahu 'alayhi wa
sallam then recited: "We record that which they have done, as well as their
traces - and We have enumerated everything in a clear book." (36:12). And he
sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam divided what was collected among them (the poor
people from Mudar). (Muslim, Ahmad and others, Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz, 224-226).


From the above discussion, we can conclude that:

1. A person's deeds are sealed by his death. Nothing that takes place after that
can affect his records.

2. The exception to the above rule is that anything, good or bad, that takes
place after a person's death, which he contributed to its occurrence in any
manner during his lifetime, will appear in his records in proportion with his
contribution to it.

There is no worthy of worship exept ALLAH and Mohammed is his messenger
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